|Chemical / Ingredient||Usage||Recommended concentration||Comments|
|Acid blend (tartaric, malic, citric) 3:2:1||Increase total acidity||1g/L||Increase TA by 1 g/L|
|Ascorbic acid||Anti-oxidant||2-3 g/hL||Only to be used with sulphite|
|Bentonite||Fining white and red wines Fining sparkling wines||25-100 g/hL 25-50 g/hL||Dissolve in water|
|Bio-Clean||Clean equipment||15 mL (1 tbsp) per 4 L of warm water|
|Bio-San||Sanitize equipment||15 mL (1 tbsp) per 4 L of hot water|
|Casein||Fining white wines and improve colour in white wines||50-100 g/hL||Dissolve in water|
|Chlorinated cleaner (pink powder)||Clean and sanitize equipment||5 mL (1 tsp) per 4 L of water||Should not be used on plastic equipment or oak barrels|
|Citric acid||Increase effectiveness of sulphite solution for sanitizing equipment||45 mL (3 tbsp) per 4 L of water||Dissolve in warm water|
|Copper sulphate||Reduce hydrogen sulphide||4 drops/hL using a 1% solution|
|Dextrose or sucrose||Increase potential alcohol level||17 g/L||Increase potential alcohol level by 1.0%|
|Egg whites||Fining red wines||5-10 g/hL||Combine with a salted water solution|
|Gelatin||Fining red wines||1-5 g/hL (increase up to 25 g/hL for high-pectin wines)||Dissolve in water|
|Grape tannins||Increase tannin content||10-30 g/hL (increase to 50 g/hL when fining high-pectin wines with gelatin)||Dissolve in warm water|
|Hydrogen peroxide||Reduce free SO2 content||50 g/hL (using a 1% solution)||Reduce free SO2 content by 10 mg/L|
|Isinglass||Fining white wines||Liquid: 1 mL/L Powder: 1-3 g/hL||Liquid: dilute in wine Powder: dissolve in water|
|Kieselsol||Fining white and red wines||25-50 mL/hL|
|Metatartaric acid||Prevent precipitation of tartrate crystals||Up to 10g/hL||Dissolve in water|
|Oak chips||Add oak aroma to wines||Whites: 1-2 g/L Reds: 2-4 g/L|
|Oak extract (10% solution)||Add oak aroma to wines||Whites: 2 mL/LReds: 4 mL/L|
|Pectic enzymes||Fining wines||Whites: 1-2 g/hL Reds: 2-4 g/hL||Dissolve in water|
|Phosphoric acid||Reduce pH in high-TA wines||1 or 2 drops of 30% solution/L|
|Potassium bicarbonate||Reduce total acidity||1-2 g/L||Reduce TA by 1 g/L|
|Potassium metabisulphite||A. Crushing of grapes B. Must preparation (concentrated, sterilized, and fresh juices) C. Stabilization D. Bottling||A. 100 mg/L B. 50 mg/L C. 50 mg/L D. 50 mg/L||A. Decrease to 5-10 mg/L of must for MLF. Dissolve in warm water B, C, and D. Dissolve in warm water|
|Potassium sorbate||Prevent re-fermentation of bottled wines||10-20 g/hL||Do not use in ML-fermented wines|
|Sodium carbonate (soda ash)||Clean plastic equipment||8-12 g/L of water||Dissolve in hot water|
|Sodium percarbonate||Treat oak barrel spoilage problems||1-3 g/L of water||Dissolve in hot water|
|Sodium metabisulphite||Sanitize equipment||45 mL (3 tbsp) per 4 L of water||Dissolve in warm water|
|Sparkolloid®||Fining white and red wines||10-40 g/hL||Dissolve in water|
|Sweetener-conditioner||Sweeten a finished wine||12-25 mL/L of wine||Prevent renewed fermentation|
|Tannisol||Preserve/stabilize wine||1-3 tablets per hL|
|Tartaric acid||Increase total acidity or reduce pH||1-2 g/L||Increase TA by 1 g/L or reduce pH by 0.1 unit|
|Yeast (active dried)||Alcoholic fermentation||5 g for 4.5 to 23 L of must|
|Yeast nutrients (diammonium phosphate)||Enhance fermentation capability of yeast||10-20 g/hL||Dissolve in warm water|
Consider performing a cold soak to extract the most color from fickle grapes.
Learn how the pros conduct bench trials to help guide your own trials at home.
Dark waters form in a homemade barrel, and a question about adding potassium sorbate to a blackberry Port wine.
Shopping for a wine kit to get a friend started in a new hobby is more than one shopper expected.
Send us your best home wine labels and you could win great winemaking prizes from our advertisers.