Resource

Chemicals & Ingredients Chart

Chemical / IngredientUsageRecommended concentrationComments
Acid blend (tartaric, malic, citric) 3:2:1Increase total acidity1g/LIncrease TA by 1 g/L
Ascorbic acidAnti-oxidant2-3 g/hLOnly to be used with sulphite
BentoniteFining white and red wines Fining sparkling wines25-100 g/hL 25-50 g/hLDissolve in water
Bio-CleanClean equipment15 mL (1 tbsp) per 4 L of warm water
Bio-SanSanitize equipment15 mL (1 tbsp) per 4 L of hot water
CaseinFining white wines and improve colour in white wines50-100 g/hLDissolve in water
Chlorinated cleaner (pink powder)Clean and sanitize equipment5 mL (1 tsp) per 4 L of waterShould not be used on plastic equipment or oak barrels
Citric acidIncrease effectiveness of sulphite solution for sanitizing equipment45 mL (3 tbsp) per 4 L of waterDissolve in warm water
Copper sulphateReduce hydrogen sulphide4 drops/hL using a 1% solution
Dextrose or sucroseIncrease potential alcohol level17 g/LIncrease potential alcohol level by 1.0%
Egg whitesFining red wines5-10 g/hLCombine with a salted water solution
GelatinFining red wines1-5 g/hL (increase up to 25 g/hL for high-pectin wines)Dissolve in water
Grape tanninsIncrease tannin content10-30 g/hL (increase to 50 g/hL when fining high-pectin wines with gelatin)Dissolve in warm water
Hydrogen peroxideReduce free SO2 content50 g/hL (using a 1% solution)Reduce free SO2 content by 10 mg/L
IsinglassFining white winesLiquid: 1 mL/L Powder: 1-3 g/hLLiquid: dilute in wine Powder: dissolve in water
KieselsolFining white and red wines25-50 mL/hL
Metatartaric acidPrevent precipitation of tartrate crystalsUp to 10g/hLDissolve in water
Oak chipsAdd oak aroma to winesWhites: 1-2 g/L Reds: 2-4 g/L
Oak extract (10% solution)Add oak aroma to winesWhites: 2 mL/LReds: 4 mL/L
Pectic enzymesFining winesWhites: 1-2 g/hL Reds: 2-4 g/hLDissolve in water
Phosphoric acidReduce pH in high-TA wines1 or 2 drops of 30% solution/L
Potassium bicarbonateReduce total acidity1-2 g/LReduce TA by 1 g/L
Potassium metabisulphiteA. Crushing of grapes B. Must preparation (concentrated, sterilized, and fresh juices) C. Stabilization D. BottlingA. 100 mg/L B. 50 mg/L C. 50 mg/L D. 50 mg/LA. Decrease to 5-10 mg/L of must for MLF. Dissolve in warm water B, C, and D. Dissolve in warm water
Potassium sorbatePrevent re-fermentation of bottled wines10-20 g/hLDo not use in ML-fermented wines
Sodium carbonate (soda ash)Clean plastic equipment8-12 g/L of waterDissolve in hot water
Sodium percarbonateTreat oak barrel spoilage problems1-3 g/L of waterDissolve in hot water
Sodium metabisulphiteSanitize equipment45 mL (3 tbsp) per 4 L of waterDissolve in warm water
Sparkolloid®Fining white and red wines10-40 g/hLDissolve in water
Sweetener-conditionerSweeten a finished wine12-25 mL/L of winePrevent renewed fermentation
TannisolPreserve/stabilize wine1-3 tablets per hL
Tartaric acidIncrease total acidity or reduce pH1-2 g/LIncrease TA by 1 g/L or reduce pH by 0.1 unit
Yeast (active dried)Alcoholic fermentation5 g for 4.5 to 23 L of must
Yeast nutrients (diammonium phosphate)Enhance fermentation capability of yeast10-20 g/hLDissolve in warm water